Vascular Effects: Fast deep penetrating pain relief warming for muscle sprains, strains, sore stiff muscles, bursitis, tendonitis, arthritis & joint pain.
Direct vasodilation (flow dependent and receptor mediated)
Indirect vasodilation by inhibiting vasoconstrictor influences (e.g., inhibits angiotensin II and sympathetic vasoconstriction)
Anti-thrombotic effect – inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium
Anti-inflammatory effect – inhibits leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium;
Anti-proliferative effect – inhibits smooth muscle hyperplasia
Scavenges free radicals, improving cellular health